The instrumentation core of the Galileo55 system, which is all in the public domain, was developed and refined by a world class academic researcher, Professor Philip Doble at the University of Technology, Sydney, Australia.

Galileo55 employs a high-energy laser beam which vaporizes small amounts of a biopsy of a patient's tumor on a glass slide, as routinely performed in all hospital and private pathology firms around the world. The vaporized material is transported to an inductively coupled plasma where the temperature of 7,500 oC, (exceeding that at the surface of the Sun), reduces the cancerous material to its constituent atomic elements, such as Manganese, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Phosphorus, etc.. The resulting mixture of metal ions from a single laser “vaporate” is separated by a mass spectrometer via electronic lenses, and the different metal ions are counted by the detection system.

Agilent Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer

As the laser beam moves across the slide, a high-resolution cartographic map of the metals in the tumor section is produced, as shown.

Slides of lymph node specimens of tumor cells

The dark area of this lymph node specimen consists of tumor cells which have much higher concentrations of an atomic element, (shown in red and green). The normal lightly stained cells have a much lower concentration of the atomic element, (shown in blue). In terms of speed of information capture, a single track across a tumour specimen can provide critical data in approximately 60 seconds.

The extraordinary power of the atomic map is that it can be overlaid with other metal-based maps, such as that of the distribution of biomarkers, drug targets, antibodies and immune cells. The result is a previously unattainable, multi-level cartographic output that integrates radiation information with, for example, other clinically significant modalities, (the distribution of the HER2 receptor in breast cancer, cell division markers or immune system markers etc). The multi-layered maps can be integrated via automated image scanning technology and machine learning algorithms to provide unprecedented insights into the properties of that particular tumor.


Traditional Methods

In contrast to Galileo55, microscope-based analysis of tumor samples using standard staining and antibody procedures, identifies the type of cancer, but provides no information on its radiation sensitivity or resistance.

However, owing to the difference in quality of life and survival times between patients diagnosed with the same tumor type, current pathological features are unable to quantitatively personalize these findings to the specific curative or palliative options for each patient.

Atomic imaging by contrast provides a specific and quantitative Atomic Readout for each tumor.